30 November 2021

GreenAir News

Reporting on aviation and the environment

COP26 outcomes provide boost for aviation decarbonisation and the sector’s net zero ambitions

Whether COP26 is ultimately judged a success or failure, a number of notable outcomes for the aviation sector emerged that could accelerate momentum and encourage progress towards its net zero emissions by mid-century ambition. One important achievement was resolving differences and uncertainties over Article 6 of the Paris Agreement that provides for market and non-market mechanisms for countries and non-state participants to meet emission reduction targets. According to carbon markets body IETA, decisions on double-counting avoidance and other environmental integrity fundamentals will provide a boost in confidence to airline investors and the CORSIA carbon offsetting scheme. COP26 also saw the launch of the UK-led International Aviation Climate Ambition Coalition – with an initial 23 signatory countries – that is calling for an agreement on setting a long-term, net-zero target at next year’s ICAO Assembly. Among the many aviation-focused side events that took place over the two-week Glasgow COP was the unveiling of a toolkit to help countries develop a sustainable aviation fuel policy framework.

Commenting on the significance of the Article 6 outcome and agreement on the ‘Paris rulebook’, Dirk Forrister, CEO of the International Emissions Trading Association (IETA), said: “It is an essential enabler of climate ambition. It provides the real ‘net’ in ‘net zero’. Without market cooperation in Article 6, many countries could simply not get to zero emissions. This is because not every country has access to the natural climate solutions and engineered removals that are essential in meeting net zero, so the Paris goals would have been impossible for them. The good news is that Article 6 allows countries to cooperate in both market and non-market approaches – with clear accounting rules that prevent double counting. This integrity is essential for markets to work effectively and efficiently.”

He said the impact on mandatory, or compliance, markets was the most important aspect of the Glasgow agreement, but it would also give a boost to voluntary market participants, who because of how the basic accounting structure will work for governments, can engage in domestic markets where no corresponding adjustments are needed.

“If countries begin to cooperate through carbon markets, they can set course for higher climate ambitions that keep the 1.5C goal alive,” he believes. “The Article 6 framework can now accelerate climate action by unleashing private investment scaled to the Paris goals. Economic studies show that market cooperation can provide a systemic efficiency that lowers the cost of achieving net zero.

Forrister told GreenAir: “The Article 6 deal is good news for CORSIA’s future because it has a clear path to use the 6.4 mechanism for other international purposes. It gives clear direction that those transfers will require a corresponding adjustment, so airlines can invest with confidence.”

Kelley Kizzier, VP Global Climate at the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) also welcomed the outcome. “The agreed Article 6 rules, while not perfect, give countries the tools they need for environmental integrity and to get private capital flowing to developing countries,” she said. “The decision eliminates double counting for compliance markets and establishes a strong framework to ensure appropriate accounting for voluntary carbon markets that also supports emission reductions in countries hosting carbon market activities.”

One less positive outcome of the Article 6 negotiations was a compromise that allows a carry-over of credits left from the UN’s Clean Development Mechanism, established under the Kyoto Protocol, to a new crediting system, although their use is restricted to the first cycle of national commitments. Without restrictions, more than 4 billion credits could have been carried over. EDF estimates that some 120 million tonnes could be carried forward, while Carbon Market Watch (CMW) puts the figure nearer to 300 million of what it describes as ‘zombie’ credits.

“These zombie credits are of poor quality, lack environmental integrity and most of the projects they financed would have happened anyway without the financial support,” said a critical Gilles Dufrasne, the CMW’s Policy Officer. “Rather than being completely scrapped, the agreement will allow them to be transferred to the Paris Agreement. Sadly, they have been given renewed life and could continue to be used for the next decade, cleansing climate targets on paper but spoiling the atmosphere in reality.”

However, environmental NGO Conservation International said countries now had all the tools needed “to ensure high-quality, consistent and transparent climate action through carbon markets.”

Added James Roth, SVP Global Policy and Government Affairs: “This level of certainty will drive new investments to scale the climate actions we desperately need across all sectors, including halting deforestation and promoting other natural climate solutions. The real winners of this outcome are the communities and organisations working to protect and restore forests. Through increased financial investment, nature-based carbon credits will benefit countries and communities, which reap both the financial and the environmental gains that forests and other high-carbon ecosystems provide. And they will benefit the climate: we need nature to avoid a climate catastrophe.”

Laurent Donceel, Senior Policy Director at trade body Airlines for Europe, told Bloomberg the Article 6 deal would make CORSIA stricter. “This is a significant clarification in the business decision-making of airlines,” he said. “It will influence their investments in sustainable aviation fuels and their fleet renewal.”

Formation of aviation coalition of states

On November 10, to coincide with COP26’s Transport Day, 23 countries participated in the inaugural meeting of the International Aviation Climate Ambition Coalition (IACAC), issuing a declaration at a UK Presidency event. They agreed to work together, “both through ICAO and other complementary cooperative initiatives, to advance ambitious actions to reduce aviation CO2 emissions at a rate consistent with efforts to limit the global average temperature increase to 1.5C.”

Among a range of joint commitments, the countries agreed to support the adoption of an “ambitious” long-term aspirational goal consistent with 1.5C “and in view of the industry’s commitments towards net zero CO2 emissions by 2050.” They also agreed to support efforts at ICAO to implement and strengthen CORSIA by expanding member state participation in the carbon offsetting scheme, taking steps by states to domestically implement the necessary CORSIA regulations, advance the environmental ambition of CORSIA through the periodic reviews and working to ensure double counting of CORSIA eligible units is avoided.

The UK’s own primary objective for the current CORSIA review is to ensure the scheme is not weakened by, for example, preventing the extension of the voluntary pilot and first phases, which are due to end in 2026, before becoming mandatory for most states from 2027.

The coalition countries also agreed to promote the development and deployment “through international and national measures” of new low and zero carbon aircraft technologies, as well as sustainable aviation fuels that reduce lifecycle emissions, contribute to UN SDGs and avoid competition with food production for land use and water supply. Other commitments covered submitting up-to-date state action plans to ICAO and promoting capacity building support for CORSIA implementation and other ICAO climate measures.

The UK is keen to ensure the coalition represents a diverse and broad range of voices from every geographical region, so in addition to developed countries, members from developing nations such as Burkina Faso, Costa Rica, Kenya, Maldives and Morocco have joined the group. The declaration invites other states to commit to the declaration “and work with us towards our shared objectives.”

Launching the coalition, Trudy Harrison MP, the UK’s Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Transport, said only global cooperation could put aviation on a truly sustainable path and ICAO was vital to success, having made significant progress on CORSIA.

“This is a team effort that needs leaders, and ICAO provides that international focused leadership, but there’s more we can do as nations to inspire meaningful action,” she told the event. “The coalition we are launching here represents a diverse and growing group of states which has shown the ambition to drive the decarbonisation of the aviation industry. We hope this declaration will kick-start increased collaboration amongst governments with the target of securing an ambitious long-term goal for aviation emissions at the ICAO Assembly next year. Our coalition will also commit to concerted measures now – for example, to roll out sustainable aviation fuels, boost investment in zero-propulsion technologies and, crucially, supporting countries where the transition to clean aviation will be the most difficult.

“This group can become a catalyst for action, making sure consistent, continuous progress is made in the months and years ahead. As we look to the ICAO Assembly and beyond, the coalition will continue to meet and warmly welcomes new states interested in joining. By setting up collaborations through ICAO, led by states in this coalition, we can show the world that aviation is not only committed to tackling climate change in the future but also serious about taking the practical steps to reverse decades of rising carbon emissions.”

The United States is one of those states joining the coalition. Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg said aviation was central to the fabric of the global economy and community. “But as we know, it is a significant contributor to climate change and without dramatic, urgent action there will be a substantial additional growth in emissions over the next 30 years,” he told the event. “So it falls on us to find ways to limit those emissions. The question is whether we will act quickly enough to protect our countries and seize the economic potential that sustainable aviation represents.

“The reality is that the timelines are not being dictated by conferences or congresses, they are set by the laws of physics. The other timeline that is so important is the time engineering takes to design, test, produce and deploy lower-carbon aircraft. But we can control our response and shape our collective future. In the US, we are making up for lost time and accelerating our actions and commitments.”

Buttigieg said the US had just released its updated aviation state action plan and had set a goal for US aviation emissions of net zero by 2050, with plans for achieving the target.

He said there was positive momentum, with countries working together through ICAO on clean technologies, sustainable aviation fuels and the CORSIA carbon offsetting scheme. “But clearly the world needs more. There will not be any prizes for coming second or third in the race to beat climate change. So we are very encouraged by today’s [coalition] announcement and by the signatories that are being added, and we know that this will help to accelerate action. Our thanks to the UK for bringing us together.”

Another coalition member and signatory to the declaration is Kenya. Nancy Karigithu, Principal Secretary at the Ministry of Transport, said aviation was very important to her country, one of Africa’s leading hubs.

“Kenya is very happy to participate in and support this coalition,” she told the event. “We have made considerable efforts to ensure the aviation industry in our country grows in a sustainable manner by incorporating relevant ICAO standards and recommended practices on environmental protection in our civil aviation laws and regulations.”

She said Kenya had decided to voluntarily participate in CORSIA from the beginning and regulations were in parliament awaiting approval. The country is also looking at establishing a viable SAF industry.

A representative of Costa Rica’s Ministry of Environment said aviation played a vital role in facilitating economic growth, particularly in developing countries. She added: “Costs Rica is very interested in launching this coalition as a political tool to support ICAO’s long-term goal of net zero CO2 emissions by 2050 and to keep alive the I.5C temperature goal of the Paris Agreement. We confirm the full support of our government to this initiative and we firmly believe that more aspirational and ambitious goals can be set through strategic alliances and teamwork to benefit our planet.”

France’s Minister Delegate for Transport, Jean-Baptiste Djebarri, said: “France strongly supports the adoption by ICAO of an ambitious long-term goal to achieve net zero by 2050. The industry has made very impressive commitments over the last 18 months and states must follow this up to make this objective a reality.

“France also welcomes the explicit mention of the importance of promoting capacity building support for the implementation of CORSIA and other ICAO climate measures that benefit all sectors. France, as well as the EU, is glad to support this international aviation climate declaration.”

Other countries making presentations during the event were Costa Rica, Slovenia and Japan.

Responding on behalf of the aviation industry, Haldane Dodd, Acting Executive Director of the Air Transport Action Group (ATAG), said government support for SAF and other technologies will be needed to achieve the industry’s climate targets.

“Part of that support will need to be in the form an agreement on a long-term goal for air transport at the ICAO Assembly next year that backs up the industry commitment. We need certainty, the finance sector needs certainty and the energy industry needs to know what to deliver and when,” he told the meeting. “In this sense, we fully support the ambition of a coalition of countries that are here today and we encourage other states to be included in the movement towards a globally agreed and sector wide long-term climate commitment for aviation to be delivered next year at ICAO. We stand ready to support these efforts.”

Brad Schallert, Director, Carbon Market Governance and Aviation at WWF, congratulated the UK government and countries forming the coalition. “For a decade we have been advocating for ambitious government action to enable aviation to do its fair share towards contributing to the amount of science-based emissions cuts we need for the benefit of people and nature. Industry and governments haven’t always taken the most ambitious pathways over the years nor listened to the recommendations NGOs have been giving them,” he argued.

“We need every tool at our disposal to cut emissions and pulling every levers right now. That includes efficiency measures, operational measures and sustainable aviation fuels. It also important to find ways to reduce overall demand for aviation. I know that isn’t a popular opinion among airlines but the International Energy Agency’s recent model does show cutting overall levels of flying will have to happen a bit if we are to meet the 1.5C goal.

“But over the past couple of years, I’m starting to see a marked shift where airlines are really starting to realise they cannot delay decarbonisation any longer and are increasingly taking action into their own hands by committing to science-based targets. More and more governments too are taking individual action and we’re really excited to see international collaboration is happening here as well. One of those items countries can adopt at ICAO next year is a long-term goal for international aviation that has to align with a 1.5 degree future – that is what the science calls for.

ICAO Council President Salvatore Sciacchitano provided a pre-recorded video address for the event. “ICAO is working as a priority on the feasibility of a long-term global aspirational goal for international aviation,” he reported. “Data collection of CO2 emission reductions from green technologies and innovation is a key component for this work. Our open and inclusive stocktaking events in 2020 and 2021 brought together all stakeholders to share information, solutions and policies for decarbonising aviation. Industry has been a key player at these events and have announced concrete and ambitious plans, including announcements on net zero commitments. In the same way, we have witnessed a growing number of states announcing their commitment to net zero and their roadmaps to achieve it.

“Let me congratulate the United Kingdom for not only showing the green transition is possible but also how it can be done, and other states have now announced their commitment to reach ambitious goals.”

He said that in addition to continuing a series of global aviation dialogues (GLADs) with states to gather views on the long-term target, ICAO would convene a high-level meeting next July on the issue before the Assembly in September.

“In this context, I would like to welcome the launch of the International Aviation Climate Ambition Coalition, which is well placed to play an important role in building momentum among ICAO states ahead of our Assembly,” he added.

Concluding the event, Gareth Davies, the UK’s Director General for Aviation, Maritime & International Security, said: “I can’t emphasise enough the importance of the 2022 Assembly. It will be an absolutely critical meeting in terms of the steps we have set out today. I am inspired by the depth and the breadth of the membership of this coalition and I wish to thank them and applaud their ambition for taking this first step forward on this important agenda. I am confident many more members will be joining us over the coming months. The real work of the coalition now begins. It’s going to be challenging and hard but it is vital for the future of our industry and, more importantly, for the future of our planet. We will need ingenuity and funding from the private sector, and civil society to play its role in ensuring it all comes together.”

A key component of an ICAO agreement on a long-term target as far as the UK is concerned is that there must be just one global goal, as set out in the last Assembly climate resolution (A40-18), that does not discriminate between developed and developing world countries. It argues the common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) principle applies within the UNFCCC, whereas ICAO is underpinned by its equal treatment principle.

Video recording of IACAC event at COP26:

SAF policy toolkit launch

Transport Day also saw the launch of an initiative by the World Economics Forum’s Clean Skies for Tomorrow (CST) and the Mission Possible Partnership (MPP) to support governments and policymakers develop and implement national strategies on sustainable aviation fuels. The SAF Policy Toolkit aims to help them remove barriers and facilitate increased supply and demand, and is designed with reference to the diversity of national contexts and the various stages of sectoral decarbonisation by providing examples and analysis that are intended to be useful regardless of status.

A report that accompanied the launch addresses the need for national-level policy support and the role of international cooperation; strategy guidance addressing critical actions before pursuing specific policies; and a toolkit of policy options providing a decision pathway for policymakers. The toolkit is backed by the CST’s SAF Ambassadors – who are defined as “a geographically, demographically and economically diverse group of governments” – and chaired by the UK government in its role as the COP26 President.

“The SAF toolkit is the culmination of the SAF Ambassadors, each at different stages of their SAF journey and provides practical advice on challenges around developing SAF policy and kick-starting those vital SAF markets. It has a simple yet ambitious aim: to make greener flights across the globe a reality and even faster,” said UK Aviation Minister Robert Courts at the launch event.

“In the UK we want to demonstrate leadership on this issue and we aim to have 10% of our jet fuel be SAF by 2030 and already we have a number of SAF plants developing across our country, supported by government policy and funding with an increasing number of companies considering new proposals. I hope that our commitment and our experience in designing and navigating through the complexities of SAF policy will inform policymaking around the world.

“I would like to thank Costa Rica, Kenya, the Netherlands, Singapore and the United Arab Emirates for offering the benefit of their experiences to shape this document. We need to capitalise on this fantastic work by committing to implement these policies and we welcome others to join us.”

Video recording of the SAF Policy Toolkit launch:

The World Economic Forum (WEF) also took part in a number of other aviation-related related panel discussion events held during the COP. It also announced 20 airline members of its Target True Zero initiative have pledged their commitment to utilising new technologies such as hydrogen and electric power. Specifically, the airlines will aim for 30% of the aircraft serving shorter range routes to be added to their fleets from 2030 to be powered by hydrogen and electric. Short-haul flights of less than 600 miles account for more than 17% of total airline emissions and breakthrough technologies can play a part in reducing not just CO2 but also contrails and emissions such as NOx, says WEF.

“The adoption of these technologies into the global fleet – through either new aircraft design or the retrofitting of conventional aircraft – can help reduce the climate impact of our operations while preserving the immense economic and social benefits that aviation brings to the world,” said the airlines in a joint statement.

The Target True Zero initiative was launched in July and aims to develop understanding about how novel propulsion technology can help address aviation’s climate impacts and how the deployment and scaling of these technologies can be accelerated. Knowledge partners to the initiative include McKinsey, the Aviation Impact Accelerator at the University of Cambridge and the Aviation Environment Federation, with support from the Quadrature Climate Foundation and Breakthrough Energy.

Roughly half of the emission reductions needed to reach the 2050 climate goals rely on technologies in early development, demonstration or prototype phases and accelerating innovation in this decade is critical to bring these technologies to market and make them cost-competitive, says WEF. In partnership with US Climate Envoy John Kerry, it announced during the COP the First Movers Coalition, a platform for companies to make purchasing commitments that create new market demand for low-carbon technologies.

It will work across seven sectors – including aviation – that account for a more than a third of global carbon emissions but do not as yet have cost-competitive clean energy alternatives to fossil fuels. An eighth sector, direct air capture, could reduce atmospheric CO2 levels to help achieve net zero global emissions but also requires technological innovation to reach commercial viability. Founding members of the coalition from the aviation sector – Airbus, Boeing, Delta Air Lines and United Airlines – have made a commitment to use emerging technologies including SAF with significant emission reductions, and electric and hydrogen propulsion for air travel by 2030.

A video recording of the First Movers Coalition is available here.

United Airlines CEO Scott Kirby took part in a number of events at COP26, including one hosted by the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) and RMI in the US pavilion focusing on their joint initiative, the Sustainable Aviation Buyers Alliance (SABA). The two non-profits launched SABA in April this year to bring together aviation corporate customers committed to reducing their air transport emissions through investment in SAF. SABA’s Customers Group includes Bank of America, Boeing, Boston Consulting Group, Deloitte, JP Morgan Chase, McKinsey & Company, Microsoft, Netflix, Salesforce and new member Meta (formerly the Facebook company).

With a keynote from US Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg, the COP26 event was marked by the announcement of a new Aviators Group with founders Amazon Air, Alaska Airlines, JetBlue and United Airlines. EDF and RMI said the Group would enable SABA “to send an even stronger demand signal to drive greater SAF production, price reduction and technological innovation.”

Commented Ben Minicucci, CEO of Alaska Airlines: “Sustainable aviation fuels are critical to decarbonising aviation and to Alaska’s path to reach net zero by 2040. But production and supply are not yet where our industry needs them to be. That’s why it’s critical we work together to build a robust market for SAF. We recently partnered with fellow SABA member Microsoft to use SAF to decarbonise their West Coast business travel and now we are excited to join SABA, Amazon Air and others to create this new airline group focused on tangible steps, at scale, to accelerate progress and increase availability for all.”

Added United’s Kirby: “Making sustainable travel a reality will require extensive investment in low-carbon technologies such as SAF by our entire industry and through SABA, we can work collaboratively with our customers on real solutions to address climate change.”

EDF and RMI also unveiled SABA’s formal membership structure at the event, opening membership opportunities to public and private organisations worldwide. Working with a wide set of stakeholders, including academic experts, fuel producers and airlines, SABA is developing a SAF Sustainability Framework to ensure SAF contributes, it said, “to credible emission reductions and does not drive unintended environmental or social consequences.”

It added: “SABA members are also united behind the need for a rigorous, transparent system for tracking, booking and claiming the environmental attributes of high-integrity SAF. With this system, companies will be able to make progress towards achieving their climate commitments while advancing high-integrity SAF production to scale its future use and achieve widespread aviation emission reductions.”

Video recording of SABA event with presentations by Bryan Fisher, MD, RMI and Kim Carnahan of the SABA Secretariat, followed by a panel session moderated by Fred Krupp, President, EDF, with panellists including Scott Kirby, CEO, United Airlines, Diana Burkitt Rakow, SVP Public Affairs & Sustainability, Alaska Air, and representatives from Amazon, McKinsey and Deloitte:

ICAO at COP26

At the start of COP26, ICAO presented its customary statement and submission to the meeting of the UNFCCC subsidiary body SBSTA. A dedicated COP26 page on the ICAO website focused on the UN agency’s presence at the conference and its hosting of a side event during the first week, ‘Inspiring a Green Flying Future’ (watch below). ICAO also released a COP26 video (watch below) to highlight its climate change activities since its last Assembly in 2019, as well as two new publications: ‘Aviation Green Transition’ and ‘Innovation Driving Sustainable Aviation’. The latter provides an overview of innovations presented during ICAO’s 2021 Stocktaking events on technology, operations, fuels and other initiatives, as well as an update on the ICAO Global Coalition for Sustainable Aviation. Launched this year, the coalition – with 47 partners to date – is a forum of stakeholders from industry, academia and NGOs that aims “to facilitate the development of new ideas and accelerate the implementation of innovative solutions that will further reduce GHG emissions at source, on the ground or in the sky”. Tracker tools have been developed to monitor the development of innovations that can generate in-sector CO2 emission reductions.

In addition to the ICAO Council President’s virtual intervention during the launch of the International Aviation Climate Ambition Coalition, ICAO Secretary General Juan Carlos Salazar took part virtually in the ‘Zero Carbon Transitions: Ambitions and Actions in the Transport Sector’ side event organised by the MPGCA Transport Thematic Group and the High-level Champions Team (watch here at 1:22:07).

“COP26 is critical in demonstrating that we are en route to a better future and an ambitious outcome would further encourage states to take an ambitious decision for international aviation at the ICAO Assembly next year to complement the Paris Agreement’s objectives,” said Salazar. “It is imperative to put in place the right policies, legal frameworks, infrastructure and access to clean energy amongst all sectors with a view to achieving a level playing field for an inclusive and effective green recovery.”

Video recording of ‘Inspiring a Green Flying Future’ – Panellists: Lorenzo Gavilli, COP26 Liaison Officer, ICAO (moderator); Jane Hupe, Deputy Director, Environment, ICAO (via video link); Molly Peters-Stanley, U.S. Department of State and ICAO TAB Chair; Dirk Forrister, President & CEO, International Emissions Trading Association; and Haldane Dodd, Acting Executive Director, Air Transport Action Group. Programme here.

More aviation-related side events at COP26

How can aviation achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050?

The cross-sector Air Transport Action Group (ATAG) held a ‘Fly Net Zero’ event at Glasgow Airport with keynotes from Derek Provan, CEO of the airport’s operator AGS Airports, and Warren East, CEO of Rolls-Royce. Participants in four panel sessions covering SAF, aircraft technology, operations & infrastructure and government support included Robert Boyd, IATA; Sara Bogdan, JetBlue; Alastair Blanchard, ICF; Neville Hargreaves, Velocys; Marc Hamy, Airbus; Ivan Hutter, GE Aviation; Chris Raymond, Boeing; Olivier Jankovec, ACI Europe, Leigh Hudson, IAG; Matt Gorman, Heathrow Airport, Ian Jopson, NATS; Dr Rania Leontaridi, UK Department for Transport; Annie Petsonk, US Department of Transportation; and Jane Hupe, ICAO.

Nordic Sustainable Aviation: Skymiles ahead?

Speakers: Niels Buus Kristensen, Chief Research Economist, Institute of Transport Economics; Maria Fiskerud, Project Manager, Nordic Network for Electric Aviation (NEA); Arvid Løken, Senior Adviser, Avinor; and Tore Skoglund, Project Manager, Nordic Drone Initiative. Programme here

Sustainable aviation fuel: From ambition to action

Speakers: Melanie Kreis, CFO, DPDHL; Christoph Beuttler, Head of Climate Policy, Climeworks; Patrick Healy, Chairman, Cathay Pacific; Scott Kirby, CEO, United Airlines; Warren East, CEO, Rolls-Royce; Jennifer Holmgren, CEO, LanzaTech; Chris Raymond, CSO, Boeing. Moderator: Amy Chiang, VP, Honeywell (moderator)

Delivering Jet Zero

Speakers: Robert Courts MP, UK Aviation Minister; Baroness Brown of Cambridge, Committee on Climate Change; Emma Gilthorpe, Jet Zero Council CEO and Heathrow Airport (moderator); Jonathon Counsell, IAG Group Head of Sustainability; Jennifer Holmgren, LanzaTech CEO; Val Miftakhov, ZeroAvia CEO

New fuels for a better aviation: the case for using SAF

EU side event panel session moderated by Filip Cornelis, Director for Aviation, European Commission, with panellists Thomas Reynaert, Airlines for Europe; Kelley Kizzier, Environmental Defense Fund; Karl Hauptmeier, Norsk e-Fuel; and Jane Hupe, ICAO

Decarbonising aviation: Views from civil society and industry

EU side event panel session moderated by Chloé Farand, Climate Home News, with panellists Johan Lundgren, A4E Chairman and CEO of easyJet; Bernice Notenboom, documentary film producer of ‘Sky Gods’; Sarah Colenbrander, Overseas Development Institute; and Andrew Murphy, Transport & Environment

Destination carbon neutrality: Policies for decarbonization of aviation and maritime transport

EU side event session moderated by Jacob Armstrong, Transport & Environment, with panellists Rasmus Bach Nielsen, Trafigura Group; Amy Ruddock, Carbon Engineering; Damien Meadows, European Commission; Martin Cames, Öko-Institut; and Bas Eickhout, European Parliament

From flight shame to low carbon travels

Denmark side event on sustainable aviation fuels moderated by Lauren Uppink Calderwood, Head of Aviation, Travel & Tourism at the World Economic Forum. Speakers:  Benny Engelbrecht, Minister for Transport, Denmark; Filip Cornelis, Director for Aviation, European Commission; Paul Stein, Rolls-Royce; Jonathon Counsell, IAG; Kevin Walsh, FAA; and Roeland Baan, Haldor Topsøe

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Net Zero Industry Transition: Sustainable Aviation Fuel Takes Off

Hosted by Accenture, speakers at this event include Anna Mascolo, Shell Aviation; Lauren Uppink Calderwood, WEF; Diana Burkitt Rakow, Alaska Airlines; Si Yeon Kim, American Express Global Business Travel; and representatives from Accenture

Sustainable Connectivity? Meet the Net Zero airport of the future – today

Presented by ACI Europe and ACI World, with Olivier Jankovec, Director General of ACI Europe; Derek Provan, CEO of AGS Airports; and a video of climate action at airports around the world.

Rolls-Royce – Flightpath to Net Zero

Event looked at the engine manufacturer’s plans to decarbonise flight and was moderated by Rachel Everard, Head of Sustainability at Rolls-Royce, with speakers Matheu Parr and Dave Smith

University of Cambridge – Accelerating Aviation to Climate Neutrality

Discussion between Prof Rob Miller, Eliot Whittington explored the opportunities and challenges for climate neutral aviation and the need for a whole system of aviation perspective. The event provided a preview of the university’s Aviation Impact Accelerator to demonstrate its potential to guide innovation, investment and policy action.